Keyboard player Jon Mulligan was killed by a drunk driver in on the way home from one of the group's local Texas concerts. Keyboardist Clay Hemphill filled the duty on the keys from to during the transition years from "Chance" to "Jeff Chance". Bill Hafer retired in to pursue his custom flight case business, "Hafer Case".
John Milton Cage Jr. September 5, — August 12, was an American composer, music theorist , artist, and philosopher. A pioneer of indeterminacy in music , electroacoustic music , and non-standard use of musical instruments , Cage was one of the leading figures of the post-war avant-garde. Critics have lauded him as one of the most influential composers of the 20th century. The content of the composition is not "four minutes and 33 seconds of silence," as is often assumed, but rather the sounds of the environment heard by the audience during performance. Cage was also a pioneer of the prepared piano a piano with its sound altered by objects placed between or on its strings or hammers , for which he wrote numerous dance-related works and a few concert pieces. The best known of these is Sonatas and Interludes — His teachers included Henry Cowell and Arnold Schoenberg —35 , both known for their radical innovations in music, but Cage's major influences lay in various East and South Asian cultures. Through his studies of Indian philosophy and Zen Buddhism in the late s, Cage came to the idea of aleatoric or chance-controlled music, which he started composing in In a lecture, Experimental Music , he described music as "a purposeless play" which is "an affirmation of life — not an attempt to bring order out of chaos nor to suggest improvements in creation, but simply a way of waking up to the very life we're living".
The term is most often associated with procedures in which the chance element involves a relatively limited number of possibilities. The term became known to European composers through lectures by acoustician Werner Meyer-Eppler at the Darmstadt International Summer Courses for New Music in the beginning of the s. According to his definition, "a process is said to be aleatoric Through a confusion of Meyer-Eppler's German terms Aleatorik noun and aleatorisch adjective , his translator created a new English word, "aleatoric" rather than using the existing English adjective "aleatory" , which quickly became fashionable and has persisted Jacobs Compositions that could be considered a precedent for aleatory composition date back to at least the late 15th century, with the genre of the catholicon, exemplified by the Missa cuiusvis toni of Johannes Ockeghem. One such dice game is attributed to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. These games consisted of a sequence of musical measures , for which each measure had several possible versions and a procedure for selecting the precise sequence based on the throwing of a number of dice Boehmer , 9—
I think that's probably true, although I'd been making links here rather than to aleatory music because "aleatoric" was a more familiar term to me. I think that in a musical context "aleatoric" is more common than "aleatory" although in other contexts, this isn't so , so I'm going to leave the article here, and make "aleatory music" a redirect. Why can't it just be redirected to "stochastic music" of which there is no article despite the "see also section, which just links to the "stochastic" article. Any effort to pin the "invention" of aleatoric music down to one person is probably doomed to failure. What aleatoric techniques did Brant use, exactly, and when? The article cites various "early" examples of this genre from the 's, yet the article for Alan Hovhaness, specifically with regard to his piece Lousadzak, which debuted in , is not mentioned. Wouldn't it be more accurate to cite the earliest examples? Actually aleatoric means new music, so i guess catsup is the new ketchup -